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Op-Ed: Keith Rosenberg, 2001

Legal Means: (Rule of Law)

May be ineffective against determined and extreme terrorist organizations. More effective against the pawns. Few top people are ever arrested. Most effective with good Intelligence. Very little or no deterrence value.

Diplomacy: Preventive value proportional to numbers of nations involved. Can slow resource transfer to terrorists. Effective when it maintains moral high ground.

Embargo: Very little deterrence value. Somewhat effective in slowing resource transfer. Most effective over many years, but not a sure thing. Often fails. Best when backed with diplomatic and financial efforts. Effectiveness proportional to number of nations involved.

Blockade: Preventive value moderate. A tight blockade is very effective within months. Little deterrence value. Most effective when used with military force. Can be decisive.

Overt Military Action: Fair deterrence value. Effective against large open targets of the overt type. Best when used from the moral high ground. May be decisive if used at the right time. Depends on good Intelligence. Helps blockades and covert actions. Not very effective against terrorists or guerrillas directly.

Pacifism: Pacifism is opposition to all war and armed hostility; belief that national or international disputes should be settled by peaceful means rather than by force or war. Pacifism is not a passive process nor does it ignore the issues. Within this context, it can wield considerable force as the careers of MAHATMA GANDHI, MARTIN LUTHER KING JR., and AUNG SAN SUU KYI attest.

Financial Embargo: Partly effective in preventing the transfer of resources. Little deterrence value.

Covert Actions: Can be a moderate deterrent if lethal means are used. More effective with excellent intelligence. Depends on operational security.

Propaganda: Most effective against peoples who are easily swayed or do not think critically. Helps bring about a decision. Best when it is the truth. (Publisher's note: Propaganda according to Webster is any systematic, widespread, deliberate indoctrination, or plan for such indoctrination: now often used in a derogatory sense denoting deception or distortion.)

Humanitarian Aid: Good for keeping some people from joining terrorists. Good for maintaining the moral high ground. It is the right thing to do.

Watchful Citizens, Armed or Not: Can prevent many attacks. May be hampered by rules against carrying arms. Helped by education, training, and physical fitness. Has definite deterrent effect.

Intelligence: Is usually decisive when used for guiding tactics. No deterrent effect unless implemented tactically.

Marshall Plan: Best used in established, but damaged, states. May be ineffective where corrupt governments, economic problems, and limited education exist.


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